|Here are some experiments and games to test your memory. Also, don'tforget that there are some memory tricks and techniques at the end of thissection!|
Think you have a good memory? Then take this little Short TermMemory Test
Also, test your memory for pictures with this Short Term MemoryPicture Game
Now You See It, Now YouDon't
Let's test short term memory. Get a tray or alarge plate. (The kind oftrays from the cafeteria work well). Put 10 to 20 objects on the tray,then cover them with a towel or cloth. Tell your subjects that you have anumber of objects on the tray and that you want them to remember as manyitems as possible. Also tell them that they will have 1 minute to viewthem. Then take off the cover from the tray and start timing one minute. After one minute, cover up the tray. Have your subjects write down allthe items that they can remember. Could they remember all of the items? Are there any items that were forgotten by all the subjects? Teach yoursubjects some of the memory techniques (see below) and repeat theexperiment.
This experiment is a variation of the previous experiment to test short term memory. Get your tray and items and cloth ready again. This time have you subjects view the items for 1 minute. Then cover the tray again. Without the subjects seeing, REMOVE 1 item from the tray. Show the tray and remaining items to your subjects again. Ask them, "What is missing?". Can they guess what you removed?
Try it again giving the subjects more time to view all the items.
Think you know your classmates? Let's see how good your memory for themreally is. Have one student leave the room. While this student is out ofthe room, have another student hide. Then bring the first student backinto the room. Can this student name the student who is missing?
This game is a bit like "Who's Missing". This time a few students or thewhole class can test their memory at the same time. Tell everyone to takea good look around the classroom. Ask them to remember where objects arelocated in the room. Then send a few students out of the room while youchange the location of various objects in the class. You could also dothis while the students are at recess or lunch. When the students comeback into the classroom, ask them to write down all of the things thathave changed. Make sure you keep a list of all thethings that you have changed!
Go to the Exploratorium to see if you remember what this common everyday object really looks like. What can it be? What can it be?
Have you ever been an eyewitness to a crime? Is your memory for the crimethe same as other peopleās recollection? Here is a way to exploreeyewitness memory. Plan to have someone (a teacher or a student) comeinto your class. Letās call this person, "X". X should plan on doingseveral things in class like:
Whatdetails do they recall? What did X wear? How long was X in the room? What book did X take? Who did X talk to? What did X say? You may evenask some leading questions to influence memory. For example, if X wasnot wearing a hat, ask, "What color hat was X wearing?". Comparehow everyoneās memory was the same and different.
Many of us have played the "game of concentration" before. Get a deck of playing cards (cards with pictures work well too). Get 15 matched pairs of cards...so a total of 30 cards. Mix up the 30 cards and then arrange them FACE DOWN in a 6 by 5 grid. Play starts by having one player turn over 2 cards. If the number or picture of the 2 cards is the same, the player picks up these 2 cards and turns over 2 more. If the 2 cards are not the same, the cards are turned back face down in the same place they were and it is the next player's turn. The object of the game is to remember where similar cards are located and to pick up as many pairs as possible. The winner of the game is the one who has the most cards at the end of the game. To make the game more difficult, use the whole deck of cards (26 matched pairs).
The Memory Game
How good is your memory? I will present you with a table of 25 different objects. Look at them for 30 seconds, then click on the "Back"button to return to this page. Then write down all the objects that you can remember.
How did you do? How many did you remember? Try some of the memory techniques (see below) and see if you do better.
There's a Chunk
Does this chunking really work? Find out. Get a partner. Tell yourpartner that you are going to read some numbers and you want him or her toremember as many as possible. Don't tell your partner how many numbers orwhat range they will be in. Read these numbers in the following order at arate of about 1 every second:
9 1 5 11 2 4 6 15 10 3 7 13 12 8 14
Immediately ask your partner to write down the numbers he or sheremembers. Now tell your partner that you will read another set ofnumbers and you want him or her to remember them. Read these numbers inthe following order at a rate of about 1 every second:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Immediately ask your partner to write down the numbers he or sheremembers. Was the second time easier? Did your partner remember morenumbers the second time? Both sets of numbers are exactly the same...itis just that the second one can really be "chunked" into 1....one series of numbers that is easy toremember.
A Trip to Memory Market
Write a story about a trip to the grocery store. In the story includemany food items (10-20 items) that you bought. Read your story to theclass and see how many items they can remember. Use the memory tricks andtips (see below) to increase the number of items that can beremembered.
Here is another grocery store game, called "Grocery Store" ( Get everyone together. The first player starts the grocery list by saying"I went to the grocery story and bought some ____." The player shouldfill in the blank with an item from the grocery store. For example, theplayer could say "I went to the grocery story and bought some apples."The next player must repeat the list and add a second item. For example,the second player can say, "I went to the grocery store and bought someapples and a bag of potato chips." The third player must create a listusing apples, bag of chips and add a third item. The game continues untilsomeone forgets one of the items. Materials:
Get everyone together. The first player starts the grocery list by saying"I went to the grocery story and bought some ____." The player shouldfill in the blank with an item from the grocery store. For example, theplayer could say "I went to the grocery story and bought some apples."The next player must repeat the list and add a second item. For example,the second player can say, "I went to the grocery store and bought someapples and a bag of potato chips." The third player must create a listusing apples, bag of chips and add a third item. The game continues untilsomeone forgets one of the items.
Now or Later - The "Recency/Primary"Effect
Here is an memory experiment that requires a group of subjects to test.Get 5 or more friends to serve as your experimental subjects. Tell themthat you will read a list of 20 words and that their job is to remember asmany of the words as possible. Read the following list of 20 words at arate of 1 word every second. Ask yoursubjects to write down the words that they can remember immediately afteryou finish reading the list.
Here is the list of words:
cat apple ball tree square head house door box carking hammer milk fish book tape arrow flower key shoeNow analyze the results of your memory study.You can collect the lists of words that your subjects wrote or you canjust ask them which words that they remembered.
Now plot your results: the X-axis will be word position and the Y-axiswill be % recall. Do you see a pattern? Does is look anything at alllike this figure?:
This type of experiment provides evidence that there are 2 types of memoryprocesses. It is thought that memory is good for the words read lastbecause they are still in short term memory - this is the recency effect. Memory is good for the words read firstbecause they made it into long term memory - this is the primacy effect.
It is also possible that some words in the list were very easy to recallfor other reasons. For example, if your teacher just dropped a hammer onhis or her toe, then everyone may find that the word "hammer" was easy toremember. Or perhaps, the last name of someone in the group of subjectsis "King", then everyone would remember the word "king".
You can try this experiment again with a slight twist. Ask a new set ofsubjects to remember the same set of words. However, immediately afteryou finish reading the list, DISTRACT your subjects by having them countbackwards from 100 by threes (100, 97, 94, 91, etc) for about 15-30seconds. Plot your serial position curve again. Do you see any changes? Usually, distraction causes people to forget the words at the end of thelist. Did it happen to your subjects?
Concrete Words, AbstractWords and Just Plain Nonsense
The ability to recall a word depends on how meaningful the word is to aperson. Along with the meaningfulness of a word, the "concreteness" of aword is important for memory. Concreteness refers the ability of a wordto form a mental image. A word with high concreteness is easy to "see"; aword with low concreteness (an "abstract" word) is difficult tovisualize.
Here are 3 lists of words: concrete words, abstract words and nonsensewords. See which list is easier to memorize. You could also read theselists to other people to see how many words from each list theyremember.
|Here are some methods andtechniques to help you remember things.After you learn some of these methods, try to memorize a list of words. See if you can remember the list the next day. How many can you remember the next week!|
Technique 1: Visualize It! -Visualization
Technique 2: Chain It! -Chaining
Here is a bigger list of words to try:
shoe - piano - tree - pencil - bird - bus - book - dog - pizza - flower - basketball - door - TV - rabbit - spoon - eye - chair - house - computer - rock
You may find that bizarre and wild associations are easy to remember.Here is an example of chaining for the first three words (shoe - piano -tree) of this list.
Technique 3: Place It! - The Method ofLoci
Technique 4: Chunk It! -Chunking
Technique 5: Acrostic It! - Those CatchyPhrases
"What does this mean", you ask. Well, the first letters of each of these words in this little phrase stand for the first letters of each of the cranialnerves, in order:
olfactory nerve (I), opticnerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), Here's another one: These two phrases represent the order of planets from the Sun: One last one...do you know the order of colors in a rainbow? Justremember this person's name: Roy G. Biv
Here's another one:
These two phrases represent the order of planets from the Sun:
One last one...do you know the order of colors in a rainbow? Justremember this person's name: Roy G. Biv
For more memory techniques and more details of these methods,
Let's see if we can demonstrate some fast learning.
Print out(or download) any of these mazes:
(Click on the maze, then "save" the big maze or just print it out). Get at least 3 copies of each maze. When you have the maze, have a friend keep track of the amount of time it takes you to complete the maze...go from "START" to "FINISH" on the maze. Record the amount of time it takes you. Then, do the SAME maze over again on a new copy of the same maze. Record the amount of time ittakes you to complete it. Then do it a third time and even a fourth time if you want. Does it take you less time to complete the maze on the second, third and fourth time? I hope so...you are learning!! By the way, you could do this same experiment with a jigsaw puzzle.
The Space Place
This experiment involves BOTH memory and learning. Get a small objectlike a ball, book, block or even a crumpled up piece of paper. Put ablindfold on your subject. Place the small object on the floor about 10feet away from your subject, but don't tell your subject where it is. Tell your subject that he or she must find the object on the floor whenyou say "GO". When you do say "GO", start a stopwatch and measure theamount of time it takes your subject to find the object. Don't let yoursubject get too far away from the object and don't let your subject bumpinto anything dangerous, but let your subject find the object without toomuch help. Once your subject has found the object, stop the stopwatch and record the amount of time it took to find the object.
Repeat your experiment with the same subject. Bring your subject back tothe exact same spot where you started and place the object in the exactsame spot as it was the first time. Say, "GO" and start your stopwatchagain. Did your subject take less time to find the object? You may wantto repeat the test several more times and plot the amount of time it tookto find the object for the different times you ran the test. Do you see adecrease in the amount of time to find the object in later tests? Whatwould happen if you tested the same subject the next day?
Have one person (the "setter") set up matched pairs of playing card likein the concentration game. Have this person"map" where each of the cards was located at the start of the game. Haveanother person (the player) play the concentration game as fast as hecan. Time how long it takes the player to finish the game. Record thetime. Have the setter, use the map and place the cards back in theiroriginal positions. So the cards will be in exactly the same locationsfor the second game. Have the player match the cards again and record the time. Reset the cards and play again. Play a few more times...does the time it takes to finish the game get shorter?
Have you ever wondered how they train animals to do tricks in the circusor on TV? One way that trainers teach animals to learn new things isthrough a method called shaping. This techniqueinvolves reinforcing each behavior that looks like the final act you want.In other words, the trainer gives the animal a treat each time the animaldoes something that looks like the final behavior.
Now it's your turn to shape a friend. First, get a collection of"treats"...these could be little candies or pennies or buttons. Withouttelling your friend the exact behavior you would like to see, just saythat you will give him or her a treat when they do the right thing. TheFINAL right thing may be to turn off a light or pick up a pencil or open abook.
Let's say the final behavior you are looking for is to have your friendturn off a light. Start giving treats when your friend gets up. Giveanother when your friend starts to walk. Give another one when yourfriend gets close to the light. Give another when your friend touchesthe light. Give another when your friend turns off the light. Do notgive treats for behaviors that are not related to turning off thelight.
You can shape almost any behavior as long as your friend is interested ingetting the treat.
Use this easy-to-build device to test motor learning. It's like the old"operation" game. Follow the diagram below to build the wire maze. Yourwire maze must be a material that is electrically conductive. A coathanger works as long as it does not have any paint on it. Attach a loopof a hanger to a wire, then attach the wire to the battery.Attach the battery (9 volt) to the buzzer (or light) using wire.Attach the buzzer to the wire maze using more wire.
For more on memory, try:
|Explore theNervous System||Experiments andActivities||Table ofContents|
Fill out survey