Memory

Here are some experiments and games to test your memory. Also, don'tforget that there are some memory tricks and techniques at the end of thissection!

[Learning] | [Memory]
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On-line Short Term Memory Games

Grades K-12

Think you have a good memory? Then take this little Short TermMemory Test

Also, test your memory for pictures with this Short Term MemoryPicture Game

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Now You See It, Now YouDon't

Grades K-6

Let's test short term memory. Get a tray or alarge plate. (The kind oftrays from the cafeteria work well). Put 10 to 20 objects on the tray,then cover them with a towel or cloth. Tell your subjects that you have anumber of objects on the tray and that you want them to remember as manyitems as possible. Also tell them that they will have 1 minute to viewthem. Then take off the cover from the tray and start timing one minute. After one minute, cover up the tray. Have your subjects write down allthe items that they can remember. Could they remember all of the items? Are there any items that were forgotten by all the subjects? Teach yoursubjects some of the memory techniques (see below) and repeat theexperiment.

Materials:

  • Tray or plate
  • 10-20 small items (like an eraser, pencil, coin, marble, etc.)
  • Cloth or towel to cover the tray
  • Paper and pencils for your subjects to write down what they remember

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What's Missing

Grades K-6

This experiment is a variation of the previous experiment to test short term memory. Get your tray and items and cloth ready again. This time have you subjects view the items for 1 minute. Then cover the tray again. Without the subjects seeing, REMOVE 1 item from the tray. Show the tray and remaining items to your subjects again. Ask them, "What is missing?". Can they guess what you removed?

Try it again giving the subjects more time to view all the items.
Try it with less time.
Try it with more objects on the try.
Try it with fewer objects, but have your subject identify the missingobject feeling the remaining objects without seeing them.
Try it again, but this time remove 3-4 objects.

Materials:

  • Tray or plate
  • 10-20 small items (like an eraser, pencil, coin, marble, etc.)
  • Cloth or towel to cover the tray

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Who's Missing

Grades K-6

Think you know your classmates? Let's see how good your memory for themreally is. Have one student leave the room. While this student is out ofthe room, have another student hide. Then bring the first student backinto the room. Can this student name the student who is missing?

Materials:

  • None

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Classroom Mix-up

Grades K-6

This game is a bit like "Who's Missing". This time a few students or thewhole class can test their memory at the same time. Tell everyone to takea good look around the classroom. Ask them to remember where objects arelocated in the room. Then send a few students out of the room while youchange the location of various objects in the class. You could also dothis while the students are at recess or lunch. When the students comeback into the classroom, ask them to write down all of the things thathave changed. Make sure you keep a list of all thethings that you have changed!

Materials:

  • None

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Everyday Memory

Grades 3-12

Go to the Exploratorium to see if you remember what this common everyday object really looks like. What can it be? What can it be?

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Eyewitness Game

Grades 3-12

Have you ever been an eyewitness to a crime? Is your memory for the crimethe same as other peopleās recollection? Here is a way to exploreeyewitness memory. Plan to have someone (a teacher or a student) comeinto your class. Letās call this person, "X". X should plan on doingseveral things in class like:

  1. Change the time on the clock
  2. Take a book and put it in a bag
  3. Erase the chalkboard
  4. Close a window
  5. Talk to someone
Before X comes into the room, have all of the students working or readingat their desks. When X comes into the room, most of the students will becurious about what he or she is doing. After X leaves the room, have thestudents write down all the things that happened. (You can do thisimmediately after X leaves or sometime later). Once everyone has finishedwriting, find out what everyone remembers and what they didnāt.

Whatdetails do they recall? What did X wear? How long was X in the room? What book did X take? Who did X talk to? What did X say? You may evenask some leading questions to influence memory. For example, if X wasnot wearing a hat, ask, "What color hat was X wearing?". Comparehow everyoneās memory was the same and different.

Materials:

  • None

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Concentration

Grades K-12

Many of us have played the "game of concentration" before. Get a deck of playing cards (cards with pictures work well too). Get 15 matched pairs of cards...so a total of 30 cards. Mix up the 30 cards and then arrange them FACE DOWN in a 6 by 5 grid. Play starts by having one player turn over 2 cards. If the number or picture of the 2 cards is the same, the player picks up these 2 cards and turns over 2 more. If the 2 cards are not the same, the cards are turned back face down in the same place they were and it is the next player's turn. The object of the game is to remember where similar cards are located and to pick up as many pairs as possible. The winner of the game is the one who has the most cards at the end of the game. To make the game more difficult, use the whole deck of cards (26 matched pairs).

Materials:

  • Deck of playing cards

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The Memory Game

Grades 3-12

How good is your memory? I will present you with a table of 25 different objects. Look at them for 30 seconds, then click on the "Back"button to return to this page. Then write down all the objects that you can remember.

Here are the 25 objects.

How did you do? How many did you remember? Try some of the memory techniques (see below) and see if you do better.

Materials:

  • Pencil (or pen) and paper
  • Stopwatch

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There's a Chunk

Grades 3-12

Does this chunking really work? Find out. Get a partner. Tell yourpartner that you are going to read some numbers and you want him or her toremember as many as possible. Don't tell your partner how many numbers orwhat range they will be in. Read these numbers in the following order at arate of about 1 every second:

9   1   5   11   2   4   6   15   10   3   7   13   12   8   14

Immediately ask your partner to write down the numbers he or sheremembers. Now tell your partner that you will read another set ofnumbers and you want him or her to remember them. Read these numbers inthe following order at a rate of about 1 every second:

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14  15

Immediately ask your partner to write down the numbers he or sheremembers. Was the second time easier? Did your partner remember morenumbers the second time? Both sets of numbers are exactly the same...itis just that the second one can really be "chunked" into 1....one series of numbers that is easy toremember.

More memory tricksand mnemonics from "Mind Tools"

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A Trip to Memory Market

Grades K-6

Write a story about a trip to the grocery store. In the story includemany food items (10-20 items) that you bought. Read your story to theclass and see how many items they can remember. Use the memory tricks andtips (see below) to increase the number of items that can beremembered.

Materials:

  • None

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Grocery Store

Grades K-6

Here is another grocery store game, called "Grocery Store" (how original!).

Get everyone together. The first player starts the grocery list by saying"I went to the grocery story and bought some ____." The player shouldfill in the blank with an item from the grocery store. For example, theplayer could say "I went to the grocery story and bought some apples."The next player must repeat the list and add a second item. For example,the second player can say, "I went to the grocery store and bought someapples and a bag of potato chips." The third player must create a listusing apples, bag of chips and add a third item. The game continues untilsomeone forgets one of the items.

Materials:

  • None

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Now or Later - The "Recency/Primary"Effect

Grades 6-12

Here is an memory experiment that requires a group of subjects to test.Get 5 or more friends to serve as your experimental subjects. Tell themthat you will read a list of 20 words and that their job is to remember asmany of the words as possible. Read the following list of 20 words at arate of 1 word every second. Ask yoursubjects to write down the words that they can remember immediately afteryou finish reading the list.

Here is the list of words:

cat   apple   ball   tree   square   head   house   door   box   carking  hammer  milk   fish   book     tape   arrow   flower key   shoe
Now analyze the results of your memory study.You can collect the lists of words that your subjects wrote or you canjust ask them which words that they remembered.
  1. Find out if there was better recall of any particular words on yourlist.
  2. Was there better recall of words that were read first or last?
To do this assign a "position" to each word that you read. So, "cat" wasword #1, apple was word #2, ball was word #3,....,shoe was word #20.Calculate the percent of recall for each word. For example, if you had 10subjects and 7 of them remembered the word "cat", then "cat" (word #1) hada percent recall of 70%. Calculate the percentof recall for each of the 20 words.

Now plot your results: the X-axis will be word position and the Y-axiswill be % recall. Do you see a pattern? Does is look anything at alllike this figure?:

The results of this kind of experiment usually result in a graph similarto this one. (This kind of graph is called a "serial-position curve"). Wordsread first and words read last are remembered better than words read inthe middle of a list.

This type of experiment provides evidence that there are 2 types of memoryprocesses. It is thought that memory is good for the words read lastbecause they are still in short term memory - this is the recency effect. Memory is good for the words read firstbecause they made it into long term memory - this is the primacy effect.

It is also possible that some words in the list were very easy to recallfor other reasons. For example, if your teacher just dropped a hammer onhis or her toe, then everyone may find that the word "hammer" was easy toremember. Or perhaps, the last name of someone in the group of subjectsis "King", then everyone would remember the word "king".

You can try this experiment again with a slight twist. Ask a new set ofsubjects to remember the same set of words. However, immediately afteryou finish reading the list, DISTRACT your subjects by having them countbackwards from 100 by threes (100, 97, 94, 91, etc) for about 15-30seconds. Plot your serial position curve again. Do you see any changes? Usually, distraction causes people to forget the words at the end of thelist. Did it happen to your subjects?

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Concrete Words, AbstractWords and Just Plain Nonsense

Grades 6-12

The ability to recall a word depends on how meaningful the word is to aperson. Along with the meaningfulness of a word, the "concreteness" of aword is important for memory. Concreteness refers the ability of a wordto form a mental image. A word with high concreteness is easy to "see"; aword with low concreteness (an "abstract" word) is difficult tovisualize.

Here are 3 lists of words: concrete words, abstract words and nonsensewords. See which list is easier to memorize. You could also read theselists to other people to see how many words from each list theyremember.

Concrete WordsAbstract WordsNonsense Words
alligator
apple
arrow
baby
bird
book
butterfly
car
corn
flower
hammer
house
lemon
microscope
ocean
pencil
rock
shoes
table
window
anger
belief
boredom
chance
concept
effort
fate
freedom
glory
happiness
honor
hope
idea
interest
knowledge
mercy
mood
moral
theory
truth
ator
botam
crov
difim
firap
glimoc
gricul
hilnim
jolib
kepwin
leptav
lumal
mib
natpem
peyrim
rispaw
stiwin
tubiv
vopec
yapib
The concrete words and abstract words were scored ashaving high and low concreteness, respectively, in a paper by A. Paivio,J.C. Yuille and S.A. Madigan, Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulnessvalues for 925 nouns, Journal of Experimental Psychology, MonographSuppl., vol. 76, no.1, part 2, pages 1-25, 1968.

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Here are some methods andtechniques to help you remember things.After you learn some of these methods, try to memorize a list of words. See if you can remember the list the next day. How many can you remember the next week!

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Technique 1: Visualize It! -Visualization

When you have an item to remember, "see" it in your mind. The more absurd you make the image the more likely you are to remember it. For example, if you go the mall and park the car on the level C in space #5, you might imagine that there are 5 Cats waiting in your car for your return. The Cats is for the level "C"; the 5 of course is for the space # 5.

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Technique 2: Chain It! -Chaining

Chaining is a form of visualizing, but now you might have to rememberseveral items in order. This time you must link the items together bythinking of images that connect them. While a grocery list does notnecessarily have to be remembered in order (although it sometimes helps tofind things faster), let's use it as an example: milk, bread, eggs,cheese, orange juice. Now, chain them with images:
  1. A carton of milk pouring onto bread.
  2. A sandwich (the bread) with raw eggs on it.
  3. Eggs stuck in the holes of a swiss cheese.
  4. Pieces of cheese hanging from an orange tree.
TRY IT!

Here is a bigger list of words to try:

shoe - piano - tree - pencil - bird - bus - book - dog - pizza - flower - basketball - door - TV - rabbit - spoon - eye - chair - house - computer - rock

You may find that bizarre and wild associations are easy to remember.Here is an example of chaining for the first three words (shoe - piano -tree) of this list.

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Technique 3: Place It! - The Method ofLoci

Location, Location, Location. Devised during the Roman Empire, the method of loci uses the chaining method with a twist. Now all the items to-be-remembered are linked to specific places in the order you would visit them. For example, you might think of the route you take to school:
  1. Your room (you wake up)
  2. Your kitchen (you have breakfast)
  3. Front door of your house
  4. Bus stop
  5. Bus seat
  6. Friend's house that you see from the bus
  7. Gas Station that you see from the bus
  8. Market that you see from the bus
  9. School
Now you must link the items that you want remembered to each of these places. You have to remember the places first, of course, but this should be easy. Then chain each item to the places...remember, the more wild your idea the better. Using the grocery store example again: milk pouring on you in your room, bread that you can't get out of the toaster (kitchen), eggs splattered on your front door, etc.

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Technique 4: Chunk It! -Chunking

Ever wonder why phone numbers are really one 3 digit number and one 4 digit number and NOT one 7 digit number. It's 999-9999, not 9999999. Or what about those social security numbers. It's 999-99-9999, not 999999999. They are a lot easy to remember in small chunks. Remembering things is easier when they are in pieces.

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Technique 5: Acrostic It! - Those CatchyPhrases

An acrostic is a phrase that uses the first letter of a word to remember it. In neuroanatomy, one of the most familiar ones is:

On Old Olympus Towering Top A Famous Vocal German Viewed Some Hops.

"What does this mean", you ask. Well, the first letters of each of these words in this little phrase stand for the first letters of each of the cranialnerves, in order:

olfactory nerve (I), opticnerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminalnerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagusnerve (X), spinal accessory nerve (XI), hypoglossal nerve (XII).

Here's another one:

My Very Early Morning Jam Sandwich Usually NauseatesPeople
OR
My Very Excellent Mom Just Served Us NinePizzas

These two phrases represent the order of planets from the Sun:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune,Pluto

One last one...do you know the order of colors in a rainbow? Justremember this person's name: Roy G. Biv

R=red; O=orange Y=yellow
G=green
B=blue; I=indigo V=violet

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For more memory techniques and more details of these methods, LOOK HERE

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Learning

Simply "A-maze-ing"

Grades K-6

Let's see if we can demonstrate some fast learning.

Print out(or download) any of these mazes:

[Maze 1 -easy] -- [Maze 2 -harder] -- [Maze 1 - hardest]

(Click on the maze, then "save" the big maze or just print it out). Get at least 3 copies of each maze. When you have the maze, have a friend keep track of the amount of time it takes you to complete the maze...go from "START" to "FINISH" on the maze. Record the amount of time it takes you. Then, do the SAME maze over again on a new copy of the same maze. Record the amount of time ittakes you to complete it. Then do it a third time and even a fourth time if you want. Does it take you less time to complete the maze on the second, third and fourth time? I hope so...you are learning!! By the way, you could do this same experiment with a jigsaw puzzle.

Materials:

  • A maze:

  • A stopwatch or clock with a second hand
  • Pencil and paper to record times

Make your own mazes at The Amazing Maze Generator orCreate-A-Maze websites.

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The Space Place

Grades 3-12

This experiment involves BOTH memory and learning. Get a small objectlike a ball, book, block or even a crumpled up piece of paper. Put ablindfold on your subject. Place the small object on the floor about 10feet away from your subject, but don't tell your subject where it is. Tell your subject that he or she must find the object on the floor whenyou say "GO". When you do say "GO", start a stopwatch and measure theamount of time it takes your subject to find the object. Don't let yoursubject get too far away from the object and don't let your subject bumpinto anything dangerous, but let your subject find the object without toomuch help. Once your subject has found the object, stop the stopwatch and record the amount of time it took to find the object.

Repeat your experiment with the same subject. Bring your subject back tothe exact same spot where you started and place the object in the exactsame spot as it was the first time. Say, "GO" and start your stopwatchagain. Did your subject take less time to find the object? You may wantto repeat the test several more times and plot the amount of time it tookto find the object for the different times you ran the test. Do you see adecrease in the amount of time to find the object in later tests? Whatwould happen if you tested the same subject the next day?

Materials:

  • Small object (like a ball or book).
  • A stopwatch or clock with a second hand
  • Pencil and paper to record times

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Concentration GameLearning

Grades 3-12

Have one person (the "setter") set up matched pairs of playing card likein the concentration game. Have this person"map" where each of the cards was located at the start of the game. Haveanother person (the player) play the concentration game as fast as hecan. Time how long it takes the player to finish the game. Record thetime. Have the setter, use the map and place the cards back in theiroriginal positions. So the cards will be in exactly the same locationsfor the second game. Have the player match the cards again and record the time. Reset the cards and play again. Play a few more times...does the time it takes to finish the game get shorter?

Materials:

  • Deck of playing cards
  • Stopwatch

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Shape Up!

Grades 3-12

Have you ever wondered how they train animals to do tricks in the circusor on TV? One way that trainers teach animals to learn new things isthrough a method called shaping. This techniqueinvolves reinforcing each behavior that looks like the final act you want.In other words, the trainer gives the animal a treat each time the animaldoes something that looks like the final behavior.

Now it's your turn to shape a friend. First, get a collection of"treats"...these could be little candies or pennies or buttons. Withouttelling your friend the exact behavior you would like to see, just saythat you will give him or her a treat when they do the right thing. TheFINAL right thing may be to turn off a light or pick up a pencil or open abook.

Let's say the final behavior you are looking for is to have your friendturn off a light. Start giving treats when your friend gets up. Giveanother when your friend starts to walk. Give another one when yourfriend gets close to the light. Give another when your friend touchesthe light. Give another when your friend turns off the light. Do notgive treats for behaviors that are not related to turning off thelight.

You can shape almost any behavior as long as your friend is interested ingetting the treat.

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Motor Learning

Grades 3-12

Use this easy-to-build device to test motor learning. It's like the old"operation" game. Follow the diagram below to build the wire maze. Yourwire maze must be a material that is electrically conductive. A coathanger works as long as it does not have any paint on it. Attach a loopof a hanger to a wire, then attach the wire to the battery.Attach the battery (9 volt) to the buzzer (or light) using wire.Attach the buzzer to the wire maze using more wire.

Thread the loop of the metal hanger through the wire maze. Measure thetime it takes to get from one end of the maze to the other. Also count thenumber of errors (buzzes) during each trial. Go through the maze severaltimes and plot the amount of time and number of errors vs. the trialnumber on a graph.

Materials:

  • 9 Volt battery
  • Buzzer or small DC powered light
  • Hanger (for the maze and the loop)
  • Wire (to create an electrical circuit)
  • Wood Holder (or other material to hold the maze)
  • Stopwatch

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For more on memory, try:

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